What Materials Are Used For Making A PCB?

Printed Circuit Boards, or PCBs, are one of the most interesting developments of recent times. These tiny circuit boards have huge civilian and military applications, mainly because of their construction. The compact size increases their applications vastly, but how are they so influential despite being so compact. The secret lies in the materials being used to make these printed circuit boards.

There are more than THREE types of printed circuit boards, and of course, the materials will differ with different types; however, the primary materials are all the same in every type. In this article, we are going to tell you about the different materials that the best PCB manufacturers China use to make their printed circuit boards.


A substrate is the base of any printed circuit board upon which the manufacturer will then construct the wires and lines for connectivity around the board. The type of a printed circuit board will depend on what material is in the substrate. Mainly there are two materials that manufacturers use depending on the intended use.

A fiberglass substrate is best suited for making rigid and strong circuit boards. Similarly, for flexible printed circuit boards, mostly used in medical equipment, manufacturers mostly go for a plastic substrate. A plastic substrate is a cheaper option as well as a more flexible option. But the durability and reliability of a plastic substrate depend on which plastic you use. The most common plastic substrates are polyimide, polyester, liquid crystal polymer, and polyethylene naphthalate.

Conducting Material:

Upon the non-conductive substrate, there is a complex web of conductive material that is responsible for all the connections and flow of current throughout the board and ultimately throughout the device. You can say that this is the crux of the entire printed circuit board. The most common conducting material is one of the most conductive metals, copper.

The substrates, covered in sheets of copper, are then customized by the manufacturer as per the instructions and needs of the client. How many layers of copper are going to be needed? How do the copper sheets need to be customized? Every little detail will depend upon the application of that specific printed circuit board.

Solder Mask

A solder mask is like a protective cover over the circuit board that insulates the substrates and the copper circuits to protect against malfunctions, haywires, and short circuits. Without a solder mask, the solder liquid used to connect the copper lines and make the connections work will oxidate and leave the surface, causing the PCB to stop working.

Aside from safety, the solder mask also decides what color your printed circuit board will be. The most common color is, of course, green, but some new solder masks are coming in different colors like red, blue, black, white, and even a clear color. 


After all the complex designing and manufacturing processes, the printed circuit boards need a nomenclature that will help with their assembly. The nomenclatures are mostly visible on the solder mask, but they are available separately too. The purpose of the nomenclature layer is to help the assembler identify the right way of assembly. These include ID numbers, symbols or signs or marks for accurate and easy assembly, and sometimes bar codes as well that contains the whole information about that PCB.


The purpose of this article is only to help you gather all the important information about printed circuit boards before you contact your manufacturer and order your printed circuits. With all this information, you will be able to understand all the questions that the manufacturer will ask, and maybe you will be able to strike a better and more economical deal by choosing the right type of material for your use.

Industries Where CNC Milling Parts Are Applicable

The CNC milling technology has grown popular in recent years. Due to the high precision parts manufactured, most industries of the economy are opting to outsource CNC milling services. Also, its high level of accuracy and efficiency has made it a reliable service to outsource. You will find more information on CNC milling services at https://www.china-machining.com/services/cnc-machining/cnc-milling/. This article will inform you of the industries where CNC milling parts are applicable.

Industries where CNC milling parts are applicable

1. Aerospace and defense

CNC milling machines have been a significant contributor in the aerospace and defense industries for three decades now. Its technologies are highly favored in the aerospace and defense industries because of the incredibly high precision parts it manufactures. Therefore, making the CNC milling machine perfect for developing missiles, safety-critical parts, engine components, and landing gears.

2. Optical communication

High precision is significant in optical system components and systems importance. The materials needed for optical features and laser housing items are complex to make. CNC milling helps to create optical communication parts that use iron-nickel, copper, silumin, and other materials. The CNC milling processes are very accurate, therefore, favored in making optical communication parts.

3. Robotics and Automation

The CNC milling processes are widely used in the robotics and automation sectors. It is used to develop custom features and jigs, robotic end effectors, and storage units. The CNC milling machine tolerance allows for accuracy in the robotics part dimensions.

4. Automotive

CNC milling plays a significant role in the automotive industry. It helps develop prototype elements made from lightweight composites and metal alloys. The parts in the automotive industry that CNC milling is responsible for creating are; roof panels, transmission systems, engines, and several others. For luxury cars, CNC milling service is essential in developing customized automotive parts.

5. Electronics

In the electronics industry, CNC milling plays a very critical role. The CNC milling technology is significant in the electronic industry because of its high productivity, manufacturing of precise complicated parts, and low cost of labor. The CNC milling machine 3,4and 5 axes are essential in creating heat sinks, panels, electronic housing, and other miniature electronic parts.

6. Medical equipment

The medical sector has a high demand for CNC milling services. CNC milling produces high-precision surgical instruments, implants, and medical devices. In addition, a CNC milling machine allows for the making of customized body parts such as knee implants. Also, the milling service offering company must meet the requirements set out by regulation bodies such as the ISO 13485 and U.S drug and food administration.

7. Semiconductor

The semiconductor industry is currently adapting the CNC milling machine services. CNC milling helps in the creation of stringent semiconductor features specifications. It also allows for designers of semiconductors to get their desired surface finishing. An example of such finishing is the masked, nickel-plated, and anodizing finishes.

8. Energy

CNC milling machine plays a crucial role in making components for the energy industry. The power industry where CNC plays an essential role includes; hydropower turbines, solar, generators, and wind. It helps in the development of complex parts using reinforced carbon fiber plastics and metal alloys.


CNC milling services are very vital for the running of different sectors of the economy. The parts manufactured are accurate and of high quality; therefore used to serve sensitive sectors of the economy.

The most common types of CNC machines

Machining is a mechanical cutting technology. It is used to remove materials from a workpiece by physical contact between the workpiece and a cutting tool. CNC machining uses computers to control the cutting tools and CNC machining parts. Here, we look at some common types of CNC machines. 

Types of CNC machines

The manufacturing industry is swarmed with a wide array of CNC machines. The most prevalent ones are;

1. CNC router machine

This is among the most applied used forms of CNC machines in the market. It is popularly applied because it is easy to use. This means that both learners and regular users can efficiently operate this type of CNC machine. This element can be attributed to the fact that it is built to precisely operate CNC technology and does not require human input.

In this type of machine, a router is used to produce slightly larger dimensions. The router works together with an in-built design. The two features collaborate in the cutting of wood and sheet metal. It is worth mentioning that the routers on this type of CNC machine are found in 3 axes.

In addition to the axes, the machine also comes with a rotary positioned at the workpiece. The simple design allows the apparatus to cut different profiles, and it can also be applied in 3-dimensional machining. CNC router machines are ideal for cutting intricate shapes.

2. CNC milling machines

CNC milling is one of the most common CNC operations. For this reason, CNC milling machines are very popular. They use computer controls to cut materials from a workpiece. They use simple mills, which receive their instructions from numerical codes fed into a computer.

3. CNC plasma cutters

These are machines that use a plasma torch to cut materials off a workpiece. These machines are applied for cutting heavy materials. Therefore, the most common materials used on CNC plasma cutters are steel and other types of metal.


EDM (Electric Discharge Machines) are intricate devices that can be applied to manufacture specific shapes within a particular material. This CNC machining technology uses electrical release to manufacture parts.

The materials used in this process are dispensed from a workpiece by applying a development of electrical releases. Two anodes are applied in this process. After the materials’ dispensing, the two anodes are separated and isolated by a dielectric liquid which receives a feasible electric current.

But note, using CNC electric discharge machines is not as easy as using the other machines on this list. For this reason, these types of CNC machines are not as popular as their counterparts.

5. CNC lathes machines

Lathes are used to develop accurate yet conical parts. Therefore, CNC lathe machines are used for turning centers when cutting tools. They are also applied for shaving off excess material elements. Therefore, CNC lathes machines are almost as popular as CNC router machines. Their wide application can also be attributed to the fact that they are straightforward to use, and they make authentic pieces.


Other than the machines mentioned above, there are several other types of CNC machines in the market. The machines differ depending on the form of operation and the type of parts manufactured.

Things to Consider When Buying 3D Printers

There are different makes and models of 3D printers to consider. For instance, there are a consumer and industrial 3D printers. You can find some that handle materials such as ceramics and metals. No matter your intended use of 3D printing, you need to get the right machine.

Selecting Professional 3D Printers

Intended Application

Your end-use determines the functional requirements of the printer. Do you want to make prototypes? Is a great visual appearance or smooth surface important for you? Does durability matter? What about material properties? Maybe you want to create functional products that support the operations of your business, such as fixtures and jigs. These choices will influence the type of creality 3D printer you choose.


You should note that there is a link between the 3D printer and the material it uses. For instance, when you purchase certain 3D printers, your material options become limited. For instance, SLA printers use thermoset resins, whereas FDM/FFF printers use thermoplastics.

Even if the printers are using the same manufacturing technology, each is compatible with a certain set of materials. For instance, lower-end FFF printers can only use prototyping materials such as PLA. On the other hand, engineering-grade materials such as composites or nylon need adequate process control and higher processing temperatures. That means you can only use them with industrial-grade 3D printers.

Therefore, you should consider the materials you have access to before choosing a printer. Some printers provide dual extrusion capability. Therefore, you can print in different colors. Remember that some printers use only materials from the manufacturer. It is advisable to consider printers that can use a wide range of materials.


The minimum layer height and the smallest part size the printer can produce determine its resolution. For instance, nozzle diameter of 0.4 mm means that your printer cannot make details smaller than 0.4 mm. If you want parts with fine details, you should consider choosing laser 3D printers. That is because the spot size of these printers ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 mm.

The layer height is quite important as 3D printers manufacture parts by adding layers. However, a small layer height does not mean you will get better results. Most applications require default height. Although a higher resolution is important, it is not a guarantee of high-quality. If you are manufacturing large parts, you should use a large layer height and nozzle. That is because fine details are not critical, and when you increase the layer height, you can considerably reduce build time.


Since 3D printing involves the use of computers, the type of software you choose is quite important. Every printer comes with software or slicer for preparing CAD files. You should note that the capabilities of the slicer vary. For instance, some can allow automation and preset parameters.

You can also find 3D printing systems with tools that make monitoring, connectivity, and management easy. For instance, they can support Wi-Fi integration, sensors, and cameras. With such tools, you can print parts from anywhere as long as you have an internet connection. This is quite advantageous when managing multiple machines remotely.

Various Processes of Cleaning You May Want to Know

Laser cleaning refers to a unique process of removing different contaminants like oil and oxides via laser ablation. The process allows for the selective removal of various contaminants with just little impact on the actual substrate. As you may know, industrial cleaning is pretty much involving. So what is a laser cleaner and how many types of cleaning processes are there on the market?

The actual removal of oil from different metal parts is known to be annoying. The processes involve chemical solvents that are rather specific to every material that needs to be removed. This implies it may be prudent to replace an old part instead of giving it a new look. While it may be slightly blurry what a laser machine actually does, there are legitimate answers to some of your questions as outlined in this article.

 Background Information

The importance of laser cleaning is tremendously growing, especially in applications like the removal of debris from various semiconductors. The same applies to art conservation.

And with the rise in the introduction of a protocol that proposes reduction on the environmental as well as health grounds when it comes to the uses of solvents like CFCs which are usually utilized in cleaning, it is highly expected that additional available industrial elements of laser cleaning can emerge in the future. Let us look at the basics of dry laser cleaning.

Dry Laser Cleaning

There are various types of laser cleaning processes. Dry laser cleaning is just one of them. It is often used in various industries as researched in academia where generally it is founded on a thermal energy transfer found between the contaminant as well as the substrate.

Typically, it will end up, resulting in the rapid thermal expansion of different components that offer some force to get rid of the particles. One common problem encountered in the technique is the reduced cleaning efficacy since the decomposing products build-up, thereby masking the surface that needs cleaning.

 Wet Steam Cleaning

Wet laser cleaning is a process that utilizes a liquid layer which absorbs the wavelength in use. Laser irradiation may rapidly heat the liquid, thereby forcing the particles found on the surface to evaporate. As a result, some particles will be forced from the surface. Alternatively, a workpiece can be kept in a humid atmosphere, resulting in condensed water.

Steam laser cleaning utilizes a think liquid layer, highly condensed on the surface of the substrate. The liquid layer will then be superheated, causing the nucleation of different bubbles in the liquid’s solid surface.

As a result, high pressure will be released. The pressure may be strong enough to yank out particles from the surface. Generally, steam cleaning needs lower laser influences, especially for the removal of particles.

Fiber Laser Cleaning

Just like there are several cleaning processes on the market, there is more than one type of laser cleaning process. We have highlighted the most important ones in this blog post, hoping that they will have an impact on the type of business you are running.


Brief Analysis Of The Types Of CNC Machine Services

CNC machining services from China play a critical role in the creation of numerous intricate elements needed in multiple industries. Although mass production can work for different applications, other sectors need tailored parts for specific areas and use. The possibility and capability to design these parts accurately using a computer have driven several companies to seek the input of CNC machining for their success. Everything, including the medical industry and transportation, relies on these machining parts. Thanks to the development of computers, the process has a way of allowing for intricate tailored designs in production.

Types Of CNC Machines

There are several types of CNC Machines on the market. They all come in handy in the manufacturing processes. Generally, they are six. But in this blog post, we put our focus on the 3 best and leading in the sector.

  1. CNC Router Machine

This is one of the most common pieces of machinery you may come across in the industry, whether as a learner or devoted user. The machine is built in a way that it can precisely operate the CNC technology without the input of a human being.

Routers are used for producing slightly larger dimensions coupled with an in-built design that helps to cut wood and sheet metal. The routers are also mostly found in the 3 axes coordinate set up. This design allows the machine to cut different profiles and pocket 3-dimensional machining.

Other than that, there are CNC routers with the 4,5, and 6 axes. These ones come with an additional rotary which is used in rotating the tool located at the workpiece of the device. The machine is suitable for cutting intricate shapes.

CNC Machining Services

  1. CNC Lathes Machine

A lathe is utilized in developing a precise yet conical part. The machine is prominent for making good use of turning centres when cutting a tool and shaving off excess elements of materials as it rotates. 

  1. CNC Electric Discharge Machines

ED machining (EDM) comes with elements that can be used to make certain types of shapes inside a particular material by utilizing an electrical release. The material is typically dispensed from a workpiece using a progression of electrical releases from two anodes. The mentioned anodes are then isolated using a dielectric liquid. The liquid often receives a viable electric voltage.

Final Thoughts- Industries That Use CNC Machining Services

Precision is a tenet that matters in most industries, including medical, aerospace, as well as petrochemical. Component failure in the stated market can prove to be risky in life. This explains why different businesses in the sectors mentioned need the highest levels of accuracy to be successful in their endeavours. CNC machining can help achieve the required standard of precision in order to save lives.

Besides, manufacturers in different industrial sectors have CNC machines used to create needed products. The machines use various techniques to operate. Some industries can choose to use CNC machining to fulfil orders online.

That’s it from us. As a prospect business professional, you need to educate yourself with the basics of operating CNC machines, including why and where they may be needed.


What is the anodizing process?

My be, at one time or another, you have come across metal parts with a beautiful aesthetic design and finish. Most of these parts are made from the metal aluminum because aluminum parts possess enhanced mechanical attributes. The process of anodizing aluminum entails creating a layer of oxide on the metal’s surface, a process leaves the metal surface with an exceptional finish, as well as increasing the adhesive potential of the metal. The procedure of anodizing aluminum also enables glue and specific paint primers to be easily applied to the parts, while also increasing corrosion resistance.

How anodization of aluminum is done

Even though almost all metals can be anodized, the most popular choice of metal for the process is aluminum. Anodizing aluminum involves an electrochemical process that leaves a layer of oxide film on the metal by dipping it in an electrolyte solution. In scientific terms, that aluminum is the “anode.”

The next step is to pass an electric current through the anode and the cathode. But, the best choice for the cathode is flattened aluminum bars. The current passes through the electrolyte, usually sulphuric acid, on its way between the anode and cathode.

Types of anodizing

There most famous examples of anodize include:

  • Chromic Acid Anodize (CAA)

This process generates the thinnest coat of oxide on the aluminum surface. Done correctly, the chromic acid anodizing can offer protection as good as the other more advanced anodizing techniques. The result is a gray-colored surface that is capable of absorbing less color in a dye process. Aluminum parts made by this process are used in aerospace components, precision machined parts and welded assemblies.

  • Boric-Sulfuric Acid Anodize (BSAA)

The BSAA offers a fantastic option to chromic acid anodize; this is mostly as a result of the rising concern over human safety/ health concerns, environmental safety concerns, and lastly, the associated costs of CAA. The BSAA process is mainly applied for the sake of paint adhesion and corrosion protection. Aluminum parts that are treated using the Boric-Sulfuric Acid Anodize process are used in precision machined components, as a paint base, and in aerospace components.

  • Sulfuric Acid Anodize (SAA)

This is the most common process for anodizing aluminum. This option is mostly applied where abrasion resistance and hardness are required. As a result of the process, the sulphuric acid forms a porous film just before sealing. SAA is utilized by adding colored dye, resulting in brilliantly colored surfaces. Popular colors include black, gold, and coyote brown, and urban grey. Parts derived from this process are used in computer and electronic components, mechanical hardware, optical components, and hydraulic valves.

  • Hard anodize (hard coat)

This process also involves a sulphuric acid electrolyte. It results in a metal surface that is denser and thicker compared to parts obtained from SAA. It is best for metal components that will be used in extreme wear environments. Extremely high abrasion resistance is required. Hardcoat is also applied where electrical insulation is needed. The parts from hard coating feature improved wear resistance, harder finishes than tool steel, and can be dyed black. Valves, cams, swivel joints, and pistons use hard coat-processed aluminum.


Note, anodizing aluminum results in durable, hard, and abrasion-resistant parts that can be used in consumer goods, electronics, aircraft parts, and sporting gear. It helps metal parts outlast raw metal parts while also providing thermal insulation.

Nylon Injection Molding for Absolute Beginners

Nylon is a widely used synthetic thermoplastic polymer. It is a flexible, durable, and very versatile material that is commonly used in injection molding applications. Nylon is often used as an affordable alternative for other materials such as latex, rubber, and silk.

Items made from nylon plastic (PA) tend to have features such as:

  • High melting point
  • Excellent tensile strength
  • Resistant to abrasions and chemicals
  • Low friction

Thanks to its specific chemical composition, nylon has a very high melting point. That makes it a top alternative for metal components exposed to high temperatures. The most common uses are in car engines and other machinery where there is high-friction. The fact that it doesn’t heat that easy when in a high-friction situation makes it unique. Same as other thermoplastic materials, once it reaches its melting point, it turns to liquid instead of burning. That means it can be easily melted, remolded, or even recycled.

Another great trait of nylon plastic is that it easily combines with other materials. That way, we can improve much of its qualities and make the produced items applicable to other uses.

One such example is filling it with fiberglass. That will reinforce its tensile strength on account of its flexibility that will decrease. Plus, it will make it more brittle.

Different Variants of the Nylon Material

There are different variants of nylon, but not all are popular and commonly used as Nylon 6, Nylon 66, Nylon 6/66, and Nylon 6/6.

The numbers reveal the number of carbon atoms found among the amine and the acid groups. The single digits like 6 reveal that the polymer is made from a single monomer, which is in conjunction with itself. That makes it a homopolymer. The two digits, like 66, reveal that the polymer is made from several other monomers in relation to each other. That makes them comonomers.

Then there is the slash that means the polymer consists of several groups of comonomers that are in relation to each other. The term used to describe that is a copolymer.

Nylon Plastics in Everyday Life

Thanks to its excellent versatility, nylon is used for all sorts of products, such as:

  • Fishing line
  • Reinforcement for rubber.
  • Threads and ropes
  • Clothing and fabric
  • And a lot more

Thanks to plastic injection molding, nylon is also cast into plastic bearings, bushings, gears, and other types of mechanical equipment such as engines.

To Conclude

Nylon is no easy material to work with, especially if you are a beginner and don’t have much experience under your belt. It is a temperamental type of material, that if not treated right, can lead to low efficiencies and high scrap.

You can get consistent quality of products via injection molding by proper material handling, meticulously following all the procedures, tool design, and concentrated processing.

That’s the only path to excellent nylon molding and efficient production of excellent products. Any other approach is merely an improvisation, waste of time, money, and resources.

Why you should use a CNC wood cutter

If you work with thick wooden pieces, then you know how difficult it can be to make a cut using manual tools. And a computerized device could save you time and reduce stress. However, if you have been contemplating on getting a new CNC router or cutting tool to handle all your craft needs, then you can read up on some of the benefits of the machine below.

A quality Investment

Understandably, you need the right set of tools to get the job done. And a CNC carving machine is worth the investment. When you do settle for a quality product, you can be sure that it will still be lying around the workshop in a few years and not in the waste bin. They come equipped with the right set of tools and accessories that makes it easy to customize your wood projects to perfection. So spending on one would not be such a bad idea, especially if you are into carpentry or own a wooden furniture business.

Gets the Job Done

If you are interested in any easy way to reduce the time spent with hand tools and need a more efficient method, then you should consider a wood carving machine. Using hand tools can be time-consuming and not to mention risky as it could lead to accidents in the workplace. They provide the user with the flexibility that is required to carry out woodworking operations. So it doesn’t matter the type of piece you are working on, you should be able to cut it out in no time.

CNC Carving Machine

Available in different Prototypes

You can also find most of these cutting machines in different brands and prototypes. Although others adopt a manual operation process, the CNC machines require a computer for operation. And this means that you would have to create the design first on the computer before the cutter can then perform its job.  And which is to cut the wood to the specs and measurements provided on the computer.

In most cases, these machines are user-friendly and don’t require any specialized training to use. With a few lessons from an already knowledgeable user, even a newbie can get started with the device.

Readily Available

With the increasing advancement in science and technology, getting a wood cutting machine shouldn’t be that difficult. You can find one to buy to serve your needs. A lot of these machines come with cool features that provide the user with enhanced customization options for whatever function they need to perform. So whether you are looking for one for the local or international market, you can be sure to find one that meets your requirements.

CNC Carving Machine

Lastly, you should know that these cutters are more precise than manual ones. And as a result of this, you can be sure to save on raw materials than when you make of manual cutters. So investing in a CNC carving machine is a great way to reduce wastage in the workshop, save time on your projects, and also make fancy designs and carvings on your wood pieces.


Comprehensive Guide to Choose a Reliable Melting Furnace

Technology improvement is essential in any industry. Such is because it will help in making progress associated with performance and working conditions. In connection to that, the technology in the induction melting furnace field is continually improving and advancing its performance. There are numerous models of melting furnace based on the substance you want to melt. In this article, we will talk about the platinum melting furnace. Here are some of the things you need to know before you decide to invest in high quality and reliable melting furnace.

  1. How to find the best platinum melting furnace?

Just like in all the growing markets and manufactures, everyone is striving to meet the quality standards at affordable price. It’s the only way one can become a market leader across the globe in a specific field. When it comes to selecting the best platinum melting furnace, make sure you look at various aspects like melting point, smelting platinum ore and also platinum refining procedure.

Ensure you consider all these aspects since the quality of your final products will depend on the quality of the melting furnace you select. Additionally, it is essential to pay close attention to the size since platinum melting machine types are available in different sizes. Some melting furnaces are huge and used in mass production, while others are small and medium-sized.

  1. How easy is it to use a platinum furnace?

melting furnaces

When it comes to choosing equipment and new technology, you need to search for the technology that is simple to use. This is something you need to know before you purchase a platinum melting machine. You have to pay close attention to how easy it is to run the equipment. You also need to look for a professional operator who understands how to refine high-quality platinum.

Depending on the size of the platinum melting furnace, you can melt almost 20 kilograms of platinum. Note the process won’t take much time. You need not more than 5 minutes to melt a batch. It’s a fact that soldering the metal rings together can be a hard task. However, using efficient and stable equipment will give you high-quality platinum. The metal melting is done via the process known as platinum purification.

  1. What are other aspects to look at when selecting a platinum melting furnace?

Even though the platinum ore refining procedure is essential, make sure you invest in a reliable melting furnace that is easy to service and maintain. This implies that you must select a platinum melting furnace that comes with digital control and embedded diagnostic features.

Additionally, it is imperative to invest in a melting furnace that has advanced security features, for example, a safety switch. Even though the furnace is safe, accidents do happen. The machine must have countermeasures that will prevent accidents from happening or escalating to fatal states.

Final word

If you are a jewelry lover or just an ordinary individual who needs to melt some metal for whatever purpose, your first step should be finding a reliable melting furnace that fits your needs. This guide will help you get a high-quality product.